Fire ventilation: device, regulatory requirements, terminology
Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere).
Определение. “Hot work” means riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation.
Hot work in confined spaces. Hot work shall not be performed in a confined space until a designated person has tested the atmosphere and determined that it is not hazardous.
To the extent possible, hot work shall be performed in designated locations that are free of fire hazards.
When hot work must be performed in a location that is not free of fire hazards, all necessary precautions shall be taken to confine heat, sparks, and slag so that they cannot contact flammable or combustible material.
Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for the location shall be immediately available and shall be maintained in readiness for use at all times.
When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire hazard remains. The employer shall instruct all employees involved in hot work operations as to potential fire hazards and the use of firefighting equipment.
Drums and containers which contain or have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed from the hot work area.
When openings or cracks in flooring cannot be closed, precautions shall be taken to ensure that no employees or flammable or combustible materials on the floor below are exposed to sparks dropping through the floor. Similar precautions shall be taken regarding cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows.
Hot work shall not be performed:
In flammable or potentially flammable atmospheres:
On or in equipment or tanks that have contained flammable gas or liquid or combustible liquid or dust-producing material, until a designated person has tested the atmosphere inside the equipment or tanks and determined that it is not hazardous; or
Near any area in which exposed readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper or cotton are stored. Bulk sulphur is excluded from this prohibition if suitable precautions are followed, the person in charge is knowledgeable and the person performing the work has been instructed in preventing and extinguishing sulphur fires.
Drums, containers or hollow structures that have contained flammable or combustible substances shall either be filled with water or cleaned, and shall then be ventilated. A designated person shall test the atmosphere and determine that it is not hazardous before hot work is performed on or in such structures.
Before heat is applied to a drum, container or hollow structure, an opening to release built-up pressure during heat application shall be provided.
Gas welding and cutting.
Compressed gas cylinders:
Shall have valve protection caps in place except when in use, hooked up or secured for movement. Oil shall not be used to lubricate caps;
Shall be hoisted only while secured, as on a cradle or pallet, and shall not be hoisted by magnet, choker sling or cylinder caps;
Shall be moved only by tilting or rolling on their bottom edges;
Shall be secured when moved by vehicle;
Shall be secured while in use;
Shall have valves closed when cylinders are empty, being moved or stored;
Shall be secured upright except when hoisted or carried;
Shall not be freed when frozen by prying the valves or caps with bars or by hitting the valve with a tool;
Shall not be thawed by boiling water;
Shall not be exposed to sparks, hot slag, or flame;
Shall not be permitted to become part of electrical circuits or have electrodes struck against them to strike arcs;
Shall not be used as rollers or supports;
Shall not have contents used for purposes not authorized by the supplier;
Shall not be used if damaged or defective;
Shall not have gases mixed within, except by gas suppliers;
Shall be stored so that oxygen cylinders are separated from fuel gas cylinders and combustible materials by either a minimum distance of 20 feet (6.1 m) or a barrier having a fire-resistance rating of 30 minutes; and
Shall not have objects that might either damage the safety device or obstruct the valve placed on top of the cylinder when in use.
Use of fuel gas. Fuel gas shall be used only as follows:
Before regulators are connected to cylinder valves, the valves shall be opened slightly (cracked) and closed immediately to clear away dust or dirt. Valves shall not be cracked if gas could reach possible sources of ignition;
Cylinder valves shall be opened slowly to prevent regulator damage and shall not be opened more than 1½ turns. Any special wrench required for emergency closing shall be positioned on the valve stem during cylinder use. For manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one wrench shall be immediately available. Nothing shall be placed on top of a cylinder or associated parts when the cylinder is in use.
Pressure-reducing regulators shall be attached to cylinder valves when cylinders are supplying torches or devices equipped with shut-off valves;
Cylinder valves shall be closed and gas released from the regulator or manifold before regulators are removed;
Leaking fuel gas cylinder valves shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If the leak continues, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous. If a regulator attached to a valve stops a leak, the cylinder need not be removed from the workplace but shall be tagged and may not be used again before it is repaired; and
If a plug or safety device leaks, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.
Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be easily distinguishable from each other by color or sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel hoses shall not be interchangeable. Hoses having more than one gas passage shall not be used.
When oxygen and fuel gas hoses are taped together, not more than four (4) of each 12 inches (10.16 cm of each 30.48 cm) shall be taped.
Hose shall be inspected before use. Hose subjected to flashback or showing evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal working pressure but not less than 200 p.s.i. (1378.96 kPa) before reuse. Defective hose shall not be used.
Hose couplings shall not unlock or disconnect without rotary motion.
Hose connections shall be clamped or securely fastened to withstand twice the normal working pressure but not less than 300 p.s.i. (2068.44 kPa) without leaking.
Gas hose storage boxes shall be ventilated.
Torch tip openings shall only be cleaned with devices designed for that purpose.
Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches with such defects shall not be used.
Torches shall not be lighted from matches, cigarette lighters, other flames or hot work.
Регуляторы давления. Pressure regulators, including associated gauges, shall be maintained in safe working order.
Operational precaution. Gas welding equipment shall be maintained free of oil and grease.
Arc welding and cutting.
Manual electrode holders.
The employer shall ensure that only manual electrode holders intended for arc welding and cutting and capable of handling the maximum current required for such welding or cutting shall be used.
Current-carrying parts passing through those portions of the holder gripped by the user and through the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be insulated against the maximum voltage to ground.
Welding cables and connectors.
Arc welding and cutting cables shall be insulated, flexible and capable of handling the maximum current required by the operations, taking into account the duty cycles.
Only cable free from repair or splice for 10 feet (3 m) from the electrode holder shall be used unless insulated connectors or splices with insulating quality equal to that of the cable are provided.
When a cable other than the lead mentioned in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section wears and exposes bare conductors, the portion exposed shall not be used until it is protected by insulation equivalent in performance capacity to the original.
Insulated connectors of equivalent capacity shall be used for connecting or splicing cable. Cable lugs, where used as connectors, shall provide electrical contact. Exposed metal parts shall be insulated.
Ground returns and machine grounding.
Ground return cables shall have current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
Structures or pipelines, other than those containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used in the ground return circuit if their current-carrying capacity equals or exceeds the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
Structures or pipelines forming a temporary ground return circuit shall have electrical contact at all joints. Arcs, sparks or heat at any point in the circuit shall cause rejection as a ground circuit.
Structures or pipelines acting continuously as ground return circuits shall have joints bonded and maintained to ensure that no electrolysis or fire hazard exists.
Arc welding and cutting machine frames shall be grounded, either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire at the source of the current. Grounding circuits shall have resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
Ground connections shall be mechanically and electrically adequate to carry the current.
When electrode holders are left unattended, electrodes shall be removed and holders placed to prevent employee injury.
Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water.
The employer shall ensure that when arc welders or cutters leave or stop work or when machines are moved, the power supply switch shall be kept in the off position.
Arc welding or cutting equipment having a functional defect shall not be used.
Arc welding and cutting operations shall be separated from other operations by shields, screens, or curtains to protect employees in the vicinity from the direct rays and sparks of the arc.
Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other’s arc, they shall wear filter lenses complying with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.
The control apparatus of arc welding machines shall be enclosed, except for operating wheels, levers, and handles.
Input power terminals, top change devices and live metal parts connected to imput circuits shall be enclosed and accessible only by means of insulated tools.
When arc welding is performed in wet or high-humidity conditions, employees shall use additional protection, such as rubber pads or boots, against electric shock.
Ventilation and employee protection in welding, cutting and heating –
Mechanical ventilation requirements. The employer shall ensure that general mechanical ventilation or local exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:
General mechanical ventilation shall maintain vapors, fumes and smoke below a hazardous level.
Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of movable hoods positioned close to the work and shall be of such capacity and arrangement as to keep breathing zone concentrations below hazardous levels.
Exhausts from working spaces shall be discharged into the open air, clear of intake air sources;
Replacement air shall be clean and respirable; and
Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation, cooling or cleaning clothing or work areas.
Hot work in confined spaces. Except as specified in paragraphs (f)(3)(ii) and (f)(3)(iii) of this section, when hot work is performed in a confined space the employer shall ensure that:
General mechanical or local exhaust ventilations shall be provided; or
Employees in the space shall wear supplied air respirators in accordance with § 1910.134 and a standby on the outside shall maintain communication with employees inside the space and shall be equipped and prepared to provide emergency aid.
Welding, cutting or heating of toxic metals.
In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation that ensures that employees are not exposed to hazardous levels of fumes:
Lead base metals;
Cadmium-bearing filler materials; and
Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section or by employees wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with § 1910.134;
Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials;
Metals containing lead other than as an impurity, or coated with lead-bearing materials;
Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; and
Metals coated with mercury-bearing materials.
Employees performing hot work in confined or enclosed spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by local exhaust ventilation and wear supplied air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus, in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.134.
The employer shall ensure that employees performing hot work in the open air that involves any of the metals listed in paragraphs (f)(3)(i) and (f)(3)(ii) of this section shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.134, and those working on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by supplied air respirators, in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.134.
Any employee exposed to the same atmosphere as the welder or burner shall be protected by the same type of respiratory and other protective equipment as that worn by the welder or burner.
Inert-gas metal-arc welding. Employees shall not engage in and shall not be exposed to the inert-gas metal-arc welding process unless the following precautions are taken:
Chlorinated solvents shall not be used within 200 feet (61 m) of the exposed arc. Surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is performed on them.
Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other’s arc, filter lenses complying with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section shall be worn to protect against flashes and radiant energy.
Employees exposed to radiation shall have their skin covered completely to prevent ultraviolet burns and damage. Helmets and hand shields shall not have leaks, openings or highly reflective surfaces.
Inert-gas metal-arc welding on stainless steel shall not be performed unless exposed employees are protected either by local exhaust ventilation or by wearing supplied air respirators.
Welding, cutting and heating on preservative coatings.
Before hot work is commenced on surfaces covered by a preservative coating of unknown flammability, a test shall be made by a designated person to determine the coating’s flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
Appropriate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. Highly flammable coatings shall be stripped from the area to be heated. An uncoiled fire hose with fog nozzle, under pressure, shall be immediately available in the hot work area.
Surfaces covered with preservative coatings shall be stripped for at least 4 inches (10.16 cm) from the area of heat application or employees shall be protected by supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.134 of this chapter.
Protection against radiant energy.
Employees shall be protected from radiant energy eye hazards by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields or face shields with filter lenses complying with the requirements of this paragraph.
Filter lenses shall have an appropriate shade number, as indicated in Table G-1, for the work performed. Variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.
If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under the helmet, the shade numbers of both lenses equals the value shown in Table G-1 for the operation.
Table G-1 – Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy
|Факельная пайка||3 или 4.|
|Light cutting, up to 1 inch||3 или 4.|
|Medium cutting, 1-6 inches||4 или 5.|
|Heavy cutting, over 6 inches||5 или 6.|
|Light gas welding, up to ⅛ inch||4 или 5.|
|Medium gas welding, ⅛- ½ inch||5 или 6.|
|Heavy gas welding, over ½ inch||6 или 8.|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1 ⁄16 до 5 ⁄32-inch electrodes||10|
|Inert-gas Metal-Arc Welding (Non-ferrous) 1/16- to 5/32-inch electrodes||11|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding:|
|3/16- to ¼-inch electrodes||12|
|5/16- and ⅜-inch electrodes||14|
 The U.S. Coast Guard, at 33 CFR 126.15(c), requires prior permission of the Captain of the Port if welding or other hot work is to be carried out at a facility where dangerous cargoes as defined by 33 CFR 126.07 are located or being handled.
[48 FR 30909, July 5, 1983; 62 FR 40141, July 25, 1997; 65 FR 40942, June 30, 2000]
Fire ventilation: device, regulatory requirements, terminology
1915.502, Fire safety plan.
1915.503, Precautions for hot work.
1915.506, Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.
1915.507, Land-side fire protection systems.
1915.509, Definitions applicable to this subpart.
1917 Subpart B – Marine Terminal Operations
1917.30, Emergency action plans.
1917 Subpart G – Related Terminal Operations and Equipment
1917.152, Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) (See also §1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere).
1917.156, Fuel handling and storage.
1918.100, Emergency action plans.
Construction (29 CFR 1926)
1926 Subpart C – General Safety and Health Provisions
1926.24, Fire protection and prevention.
1926.34, Means of egress.
1926.35, Employee emergency action plans.
1926.64, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. For requirements as they pertain to construction work, follow the requirements in 29 CFR 1910.119.
1926.65, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
1926.66, Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.
1926 Subpart F – Fire Protection and Prevention
1926.153, Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).
1926.154, Temporary heating devices.
1926.155, Definitions applicable to this subpart.
1926 Subpart H – Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal
1926.252, Disposal of waste materials.
1926 Subpart J – Welding and Cutting
1926.350, Gas welding and cutting.
1926.405, Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.
1926.752, Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.
1926 Subpart S – Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air
State Plan Standards
There are 29 OSHA-approved State Plans operating state-wide occupational safety and health programs. State Plans are required to have standards and enforcement programs that are at least as effective as OSHA’s and may have different or more stringent requirements.
Note: The directives in this list provide additional information that is not necessarily connected to a specific OSHA standard highlighted on this Safety and Health Topics page.
. CPL 02-01-037, (July 09, 2002). . STD 01-09-003, (December 12, 1981). . STD 01-09-002, (August 05, 1981).
National Consensus Standards and Recommendations from other Professional Organizations
Примечание: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.
Совет по международному кодексу (ICC)
. Includes information about the ICC which initiated a request for recognition of its codes by OSHA in May of 2004, with submission of a document in November of 2005 that details a section by section comparison and analysis of the IBC with OSHA’s rules in Subpart E. After review of that document OSHA made a preliminary finding, as noted in an ANPRM, recognizing the IBC and IFC as compliant with the OSHA requirements.
- 1, Uniform Fire Code
- 101, Life Safety Code
- 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations
- 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code
. Includes information about the code development cycle, the National Institute of Standard’s (NIST) World Trade Center Recommendations, disaster response, comparison of the International Building Code (IBC) with NFPA 5000, the Building Construction and Safety Code, as well as ICC policies and procedures.
National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA)
. Develops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. Virtually every building, process, service, design, and installation in society today is affected by NFPA documents.
Consensus Standards and the General Duty Clause
Using Consensus standards to support a 5(a)(1) Citation:
A consensus standard can be used to show “industry recognition” of a hazard. However, the hazard must be recognized in the employers’ industry, not an industry other than the employers’ industry.
Fire ventilation: device, regulatory requirements, terminology
6. If the sharp had engineered sharps injury protection, whether the protective mechanism was activated, and whether the injury occurred before the protective mechanism was activated, during activation of the mechanism or after activation of the mechanism, if applicable;
7. If the sharp had no engineered sharps injury protection, the injured employee’s opinion as to whether and how such a mechanism could have prevented the injury; and
8. The employee’s opinion about whether any engineering, administrative or work practice control could have prevented the injury.
(D) Each exposure incident shall be recorded on the Sharps Injury Log within 14 working days of the date the incident is reported to the employer.
(E) The information in the Sharps Injury Log shall be recorded and maintained in such a manner as to protect the confidentiality of the injured employee.
(A) Each employer who has an employee(s) with occupational exposure as defined by subsection (b) of this section shall prepare an exposure determination. This exposure determination shall contain the following:
1. A list of all job classifications in which all employees in those job classifications have occupational exposure;
3. A list of all tasks and procedures or groups of closely related task and procedures in which occupational exposure occurs and that are performed by employees in job classifications listed in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c)(3)(A)2. of this standard.
(B) This exposure determination shall be made without regard to the use of personal protective equipment.
(1) General. Universal precautions shall be observed to prevent contact with blood or OPIM. Under circumstances in which differentiation between body fluid types is difficult or impossible, all body fluids shall be considered potentially infectious materials.
(B) Engineering controls shall be examined and maintained or replaced on a regular schedule to ensure their effectiveness.
(C) Work practice controls shall be evaluated and updated on a regular schedule to ensure their effectiveness.
(D) All procedures involving blood or OPIM shall be performed in such a manner as to minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and generation of droplets of these substances.
c. Any other procedure involving the potential for an exposure incident for which a needleless system is available as an alternative to the use of needle devices.
2. Needle Devices. If needleless systems are not used, needles with engineered sharps injury protection shall be used for:
d. Any other procedure involving the potential for an exposure incident for which a needle device with engineered sharps injury protection is available.
3. Non-Needle Sharps. If sharps other than needle devices are used, these items shall include engineered sharps injury protection.
4. Exceptions. The following exceptions apply to the engineering controls required by subsections (d)(3)(A)1.-3.:
a. Market Availability. The engineering control is not required if it is not available in the marketplace.
b. Patient Safety. The engineering control is not required if a licensed healthcare professional directly involved in a patient’s care determines, in the reasonable exercise of clinical judgement, that use of the engineering control will jeopardize the patient’s safety or the success of a medical, dental or nursing procedure involving the patient. The determination shall be documented according to the procedure required by (c)(1)(B)7.
c. Safety Performance. The engineering control is not required if the employer can demonstrate by means of objective product evaluation criteria that the engineering control is not more effective in preventing exposure incidents than the alternative used by the employer.
d. Availability of Safety Performance Information. The engineering control is not required if the employer can demonstrate that reasonably specific and reliable information is not available on the safety performance of the engineering control for the employer’s procedures, and that the employer is actively determining by means of objective product evaluation criteria whether use of the engineering control will reduce the risk of exposure incidents occurring in the employer’s workplace.
EXCEPTION: Contaminated sharps may be bent, recapped or removed from devices if: a. The employer can demonstrate that no alternative is feasible or that such action is required by a specific medical or dental procedure; and b. The procedure is performed using a mechanical device or a one-handed technique.
3. Sharps that are contaminated with blood or OPIM shall not be stored or processed in a manner that requires employees to reach by hand into the containers where these sharps have been placed.
5. Broken Glassware. Broken glassware which may be contaminated shall not be picked up directly with the hands. It shall be cleaned up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dust pan, tongs, or forceps.
6. The contents of sharps containers shall not be accessed unless properly reprocessed or decontaminated.
7. Sharps containers shall not be opened, emptied, or cleaned manually or in any other manner which would expose employees to the risk of sharps injury.
9. Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, and handling contact lenses are prohibited in work areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of occupational exposure.
10. Food and drink shall not be kept in refrigerators, freezers, shelves, cabinets or on countertops or benchtops where blood or OPIM are present.
1. All procedures involving the use of sharps in connection with patient care, such as withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or administering vaccines, medications or fluids, shall be performed using effective patient-handling techniques and other methods designed to minimize the risk of a sharps injury.
2. Immediately or as soon as possible after use, contaminated sharps shall be placed in containers meeting the requirements of subsection (d)(3)(D) as applicable.
a. Easily accessible to personnel and located as close as is feasible to the immediate area where sharps are used or can be reasonably anticipated to be found (e.g., laundries);
d. Portable, if portability is necessary to ensure easy access by the user as required by subsection (d)(3)(C)3.a.; and
2. If discarded sharps are not to be reused, the sharps container shall also be closeable and sealable so that when sealed, the container is leak resistant and incapable of being reopened without great difficulty.
Handling, storage, treatment and disposal of all regulated waste shall be in accordance with Health and Safety Code Chapter 6.1, Sections 117600 through 118360, and other applicable regulations of the United States, the State, and political subdivisions of the State.
When any container of contaminated sharps is moved from the area of use for the purpose of disposal, the container shall be:
a. Closed immediately prior to removal or replacement to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling, storage, transport, or shipping; and
ii. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage dur8ing handling, storage, transport, or shipping; and
3. Disposal of Other Regulated Waste. Regulated waste not consisting of sharps shall be disposed of in containers which are:
b. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage during handling, storage, transport, or shipping;
d. Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling, storage, transport, or shipping.
4. Outside Contamination. If outside contamination of a container of regulated waste occurs, it shall be placed in a second container. The second container shall be:
b. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage of fluids during handling, storage, transport or shipping;
d. Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling, storage, transport, or shipping.
Specimens of blood or OPIM shall be placed in a container which prevents leakage during collection, handling, processing, storage, transport, or shipping.
1. The container for storage, transport, or shipping shall be labeled or color-coded according to subsection (g)(1)(A), and closed prior to being stored, transported, or shipped. When a ffacility utilizes Universal Precautions in the handling of all specimens, the labeling/color-coding of specimens is not necessary provided containers are recognizable as containing specimens. This exemption only applies while such specimens/containers remain within the facility. Labeling or color-coding in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A) is required when such specimens/ containers leave the facility.
2. If outside contamination of the primary container occurs, the primary container shall be placed within a second container which prevents leakage during collection, handling, processing, storage, transport, or shipping and is labeled or color-coded to the requirements of this standard.
3. If the specimen could puncture the primary container, the primary container shall be placed within a secondary container which is puncture-resistant in addition to the above characteristics.
Equipment which may become contaminated with blood or OPIM shall be examined prior to servicing or shipping and shall be decontaminated as necessary, unless the employer can demonstrate that decontamination of such equipment or portions of such equipment is not feasible or will interfere with a manufacturer’s ability to evaluate failure of the device.
1. A readily observable label in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A)8. shall be attached to the equipment stating which portions remain contaminated.
2. Information concerning all remaining contamination shall be conveyed to all affected employees, the servicing representative, and/or the manufacturer, as appropriate, prior to handling, servicing, or shipping so that appropriate precautions will be taken.
b. Employers shall determine and implement appropriate written methods and schedules for cleaning and decontamination of the worksite.
c. The method of cleaning or decontamination used shall be effective and shall be appropriate for the:
d. All equipment and environmental and work surfaces shall be cleaned and decontaminated after contact with blood or OPIM no later than at the end of the shift. Cleaning and decontamination of equipment and work surfaces is required more often as specified below.
a. Contaminated Work Surfaces. Contaminated work surfaces shall be cleaned and decontaminated with an appropriate disinfectant immediately or as soon as feasible when:
iv. At the end of the work shift if the surface may have become contaminated since the last cleaning.
b. Receptacles. All bins, pails, cans, and similar receptacles intended for reuse which have a reasonable likelihood for becoming contaminated with blood or OPIM shall be inspected and decontaminated on a regularly scheduled basis and cleaned and decontaminated immediately or as soon as feasible upon visible contamination.
c. Protective Coverings. Protective coverings, such as plastic wrap, aluminum foil, or imperviously-backed absorbent paper used to cover equipment and environmental surfaces, shall be removed and replaced as soon as feasible when they become overtly contaminated or at the end of the workshift if they may have become contaminated during the shift.
2. When provision of handwashing facilities is not feasible, the employer shall provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes. When antiseptic hand cleansers or towelettes are used, hands shall be washed with soap and running water as soon as feasible.
3. Employers shall ensure that employees wash their hands immediately or as soon as feasible after removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment.
4. Employers shall ensure that employees wash hands and any other skin with soap and water, or flush mucous membranes with water immediately or as soon as feasible following contact of such body areas with blood or OPIM.
a. Contaminated laundry shall be bagged or containerized at the location where it was used and shall not be sorted or rinsed in the location of use.
b. Contaminated laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers labeled or color-coded in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A) of this standard. When a facility utilizes Universal Precautions in the handling of all soiled laundry, alternative labeling or color-coding is sufficient if it permits all employees to recognize the containers as requiring compliance with Universal Precautions.
c. Whenever contaminated laundry is wet and presents a reasonable likelihood of soaking through or leakage from the bag or container, the laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers which prevent soak-through and/or leakage of fluids to the exterior.
2. The employer shall ensure that employees who have contact with contaminated laundry wear protective gloves and other appropriate personal protective equipment.
3. When a facility ships contaminated laundry off-site to a second facility which does not utilize Universal Precautions in the handling of all laundry, the facility generating the contaminated laundry must place such laundry in bags or containers which are labeled or color-coded in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A).
(A) Provision. Where occupational exposure remains after institution of engineering and work practice controls, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, appropriate personal protective equipment such as, but not limited to, gloves, gowns, laboratory coats, face shields or masks and eye protection, and mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, pocket masks, or other ventilation devices. Personal protective equipment will be considered “appropriate” only if it does not permit blood or OPIM to pass through to or reach the employee’s work clothes, street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under normal conditions of use and for the duration of time which the protective equipment will be used.
NOTE: For fire fighters, these requirements are in addition to those specified in Sections 3401-3411, and are intended to be consistent with those requirements.
(B) Use. The employer shall ensure that the employee uses appropriate personal protective equipment unless the employer shows that the employee temporarily and briefly declined to use personal protective equipment when, under rare and extraordinary circumstances, it was the employee’s professional judgment that in the specific instance its use would have prevented the delivery of health care or public safety services or would have posed an increased hazard to the safety of the worker or co-worker. When the employee makes this judgment, the circumstances shall be investigated and documented in order to determine whether changes can be instituted to prevent such occurences in the future. The employer shall encourage employees to report all such instances without fear of reprisal in accordance with Section 3203.
(C) Accessibility. The employer shall ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment in the appropriate sizes is readily accessible at the worksite or is issued to employees. Hypoallergenic gloves, glove liners, powderless gloves, or other similar alternatives shall be readily accessible to those employees who are allergic to the gloves normally provided.
(D) Cleaning, Laundering, and Disposal. The employer shall clean, launder, and dispose of personal protective equipment required by subsections (d) and (e) of this standard, at no cost to the employee.
(E) Repair and Replacement. The employer shall repair or replace personal protective equipment as needed to maintain its effectiveness, at no cost to the employee.
1. If a garment(s) is penetrated by blood or OPIM, the garment(s) shall be removed immediately or as soon as feasible.
3. When personal protective equipment is removed it shall be placed in an appropriately designated area or container for storage, washing, decontamination or disposal.
(G) Gloves. Gloves shall be worn when it can be reasonably anticipated that the employee may have hand contact with blood, OPIM, mucous membranes, and non-intact skin; when performing vascular access procedures except as specified in subsection (d)(4)(G)4.; and when handling or touching contaminated items or surfaces. These requirements are in addition to the provisions of Section 3384.
1. Disposable (single use) gloves such as surgical or examination gloves, shall be replaced as soon as practical when contaminated or as soon as feasible if they are torn, punctured, or when their ability to function as a barrier is compromised.
3. Utility gloves may be decontaminated for re-use if the integrity of the glove is not compromised. However, they must be discarded if they are cracked, peeling, torn, punctured, or exhibit other signs of deterioration or when their ability to function as a barrier is compromised.
4. If an employer in a volunteer blood donation center judges that routine gloving for all phlebotomies is not necessary then the employer shall: